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Capire il “layout” del nostro filesystem

man hier
Il manuale in linea (man) ci viene in aiuto per ricordarci il significato delle directory presenti nel nostro fileSystem. Perchè ci sono diverse directory bin o sbin sparse nel nostro disco? Dove posso installare del software di terze parti senza creare "disordine"? Ci viene in (parziale) aiuto il manuale di sistema.

Un comando poco conosciuto:

C’e’ poco da dire, ma tanto da leggere :-) :

[host1:~] user1% man hier
NAME
     hier - layout of filesystems

DESCRIPTION
     A sketch of the filesystem hierarchy.
     /             root directory of the filesystem
     /bin/         user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-
                   user environments
     /dev/         block and character device files
                   fd/  file descriptor files; see fd(4)
     /etc/         system configuration files and scripts
     /mach_kernel  kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory
                   at boot time).
     /sbin/        system programs and administration utilities fundamental to
                   both single-user and multi-user environments
     /tmp/         temporary files
     /usr/         contains the majority of user utilities and applications
                   bin/      common utilities, programming tools, and applica-
                             tions
                   include/  standard C include files
                             arpa/       C include files for Internet service
                                         protocols
                             hfs/        C include files for HFS
                             machine/    machine specific C include files
                             net/        misc network C include files
                             netinet/    C include files for Internet standard
                                         protocols; see inet(4)
                             nfs/        C include files for NFS (Network File
                                         System)
                             objc/       C include files for Objective-C
                             protocols/  C include files for Berkeley service
                                         protocols
                             sys/        system C include files (kernel data
                                         structures)
                             ufs/        C include files for UFS
                   lib/      archive libraries
                   libexec/  system daemons & system utilities (executed by
                             other programs)
                   local/    executables, libraries, etc. not included by the
                             basic operating system
                   sbin/     system daemons & system utilities (executed by
                             users)
                   share/    architecture-independent data files
                             calendar/  a variety of pre-fab calendar files;
                                        see calendar(1)
                             dict/      word lists; see look(1)
                                        web2        words from Webster's 2nd
                                                    International
                                        words       common words
                             man/       manual pages
                             misc/      misc system-wide ascii text files
                             mk/        templates for make; see make(1)
                             skel/      example . (dot) files for new accounts
                             tabset/    tab description files for a variety of
                                        terminals; used in the termcap file;
                                        see termcap(5)
                             zoneinfo/  timezone configuration information;
                                        see tzfile(5)
     /var/         multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files
                   at/        timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
                   backups/   misc. backup files
                   db/        misc. automatically generated system-specific
                              database files
                   log/       misc. system log files
                              wtmp        login/logout log; see wtmp(5)
                   mail/      user mailbox files
                   run/       system information files describing various info
                              about system since it was booted
                              utmp        database of current users; see
                                          utmp(5)
                   rwho/      rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and
                              ruptime(1)
                   spool/     misc. printer and mail system spooling directo-
                              ries
                              mqueue/     undelivered mail queue; see
                                          sendmail(8)
                   tmp/       temporary files that are kept between system
                              reboots

Per approfondimenti:

Se volete approfondire, la Apple mette a disposizione un documento File System Overview che spiega i concetti e le convenzioni del File System di MacOS X, la sua architettura e le sue peculiarità.

Posted on May 26, 2003 - 07:02 PM


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